D46126 [SLP] Vectorize transposable binary operand bundles

I need to do this

I need to do this submitted by boi-UwU to InclusiveOr [link] [comments]

MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.
In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.
Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.
As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.
In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.
Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.
As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

MAME 0.220

[ Removed by reddit in response to a copyright notice. ]
submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

Introduction to AssemblyScript (Part 2)

This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.
In the last article we discussed how AssemblyScript (hereinafter referred to as AS) programs are compiled into WebAssembly (hereinafter referred to as Wasm) modules as a whole, and introduced in detail how various elements of the AS language are mapped to each section of the Wasm binary module. This article will go into functions, and we will discuss how the AS compiler uses the Wasm instruction set to implement grammatical elements. Before we start, let's briefly review the Wasm instruction set (for a detailed introduction to the Wasm module and instruction set, please refer to the previous articles):
Wasm uses stack-based virtual machine and bytecode, and its instructions can be divided into five categories:
Next, we will introduce details about how the AS compiler uses these five types of instructions through examples. For the convenience of testing, part of the sample codes given below call external functions for assistance of which implementation is not important. The declarations of these external functions are shown as below:
declare function printI32(n: i32): void; declare function printI64(n: i64): void; declare function printF32(n: f32): void; declare function printF64(n: f64): void; declare function randomI32(): i32; 

Control Instructions

As mentioned earlier, Wasm control instructions include structured control instructions (block, loop, and if-else), jump instructions (br, br_if, br_table, and return), function call instructions (call and call_indirerct), plus nop and unreachable. Among them, structured control instructions and jump instructions together can be used to implement various control structures of the AS language, such as the if-else statement, for loop statement, and switch-case statement. The call instruction can be used to implement AS function calls, and the call_indirerct instruction can be used to support first-class functions.
The if-else statement of the AS language can be directly implemented using Wasm's if-else instruction. Here is an example:
export function printEven(n: i32): void { if (n % 2 == 0) { printI32(1); } else { printI32(0); } } 
The following is the compilation result (the compiled function bytecode has been decompiled into WAT. The same below):
(func $printEven (type 0) (param i32) (if (i32.rem_s (local.get 0) (i32.const 2)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 0))) (else (call $printI32 (i32.const 1))) ) ) 
The above example also shows the usage of the call instruction, which will not be described separately later. By the way, some simple if-else statements will be optimized by the AS compiler into select instructions. Here is an example:
export function max(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { if (a > b) { return a; } else { return b; } } 
The following is the compilation result:
(func $max (type 2) (param i32 i32) (result i32) (select (local.get 0) (local.get 1) (i32.gt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) ) ) 
Loop statements such as for, while, and do-while in the AS language can be implemented with Wasm's loop instruction. Note that the loop instruction cannot automatically form a loop, so it must be used with jump instructions like br, br_if or br_table. Let's look at a slightly more complicated example:
export function printNums(n: i32): void { for (let i: i32 = 0; i < n; i++) { printI32(i); if (i == 100) { break; } } } 
This example shows the usage of loop, block, br, and br_if instructions. Here is the compilation result:
(func $printNums (type 0) (param i32) (local i32) (loop ;; label = @1 (if ;; label = @2 (i32.lt_s (local.get 1) (local.get 0)) (then (block ;; label = @3 (call $printI32 (local.get 1)) (br_if 0 (;@3;) (i32.eq (local.get 1) (i32.const 100))) (local.set 1 (i32.add (local.get 1) (i32.const 1))) (br 2 (;@1;)) ) ;; end of block ) ;; end of then ) ;; end of if ) ;; end of loop ) 
The switch-case statement of the AS language can be implemented with Wasm's br_table instruction. The following is an example:
export function mul100(n: i32): i32 { switch (n) { case 1: return 100; case 2: return 200; case 3: return 300; default: return n * 100; } } 
In addition to the br_table instruction, this example also shows the usage of the return instruction. Here is the compilation result:
(func $mul100 (type 1) (param i32) (result i32) (block ;; label = @1 (block ;; label = @2 (block ;; label = @3 (block ;; label = @4 (br_table 0 (;@4;) 1 (;@3;) 2 (;@2;) 3 (;@1;) (i32.sub (local.get 0) (i32.const 1)))) (return (i32.const 100))) (return (i32.const 200))) (return (i32.const 300))) (i32.mul (local.get 0) (i32.const 100)) ) 
The first-class functions in the AS language are similar to the function pointers in languages such as C/C++, and can be implemented with the call_indirect instruction. Let's look at this example:
type OP = (a: i32, b: i32) => i32; function add(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a + b; } function sub(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a - b; } function mul(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a * b; } function div(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { return a / b; } export function calc(a: i32, b: i32, op: i32): i32 { return getOp(op)(a, b); } function getOp(op: i32): OP { switch (op) { case 1: return add; case 2: return sub; case 3: return mul; case 4: return div; default: return add; } } 
The compilation result is shown as below. Please pay attention to the table, elem fields, as well as the instructions of the calc() function:
(module (type (;0;) (func (param i32 i32) (result i32))) (type (;1;) (func (param i32) (result i32))) (type (;2;) (func (param i32 i32 i32) (result i32))) (func $add (type 0) (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $sub (type 0) (i32.sub (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $mul (type 0) (i32.mul (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $div (type 0) (i32.div_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (func $getOp (type 1) (param i32) (result i32) (;; ommitted ;;)) (func $calc (type 2) (param i32 i32 i32) (result i32) (call_indirect (type 0) (local.get 0) (local.get 1) (call $getOp (local.get 2)) ) ) (table (;0;) 5 funcref) (memory (;0;) 0) (export "memory" (memory 0)) (export "calc" (func $calc)) (export "getOp" (func $getOp)) (elem (;0;) (i32.const 1) func $add $sub $mul $div) ) 
In the end of this section, let's talk about the unreachable instruction. AS is designed to support exceptions after the Wasm exception handling proposal is passed. For the time being, an exception thrown will cause the abort() function to be called. We can disable abort by adding the compiler option --use abort= so that the compiler will replace the abort() function call with an unreachable instruction. In addition, we can also explicitly insert an unreachable instruction by directly calling the low-level built-in unreachable() function. Here is an example:
export function crash2(): void { unreachable(); } 
The compilation result is also simple:
(func $crash2 (type 1) (unreachable) ) 

Parametric Instructions

The parametric instructions are relatively simple, with only drop and select. We’ve mentioned the select instruction in the introduction of the if-else statement, so will be no more details here. The drop instruction can be used to pop the extra operands at the top of the operand stack and throw them away. Let's look at a simple example:
export function dropRandom(): void { randomI32(); } 
The compilation result is also very simple:
(func $dropRandom (type 0) (drop (call $randomI32)) ) 

Variable Instructions

There are three local variable instructions: local.get, local.set, and local.tee. If optimization is not considered, every AS function can be compiled into a Wasm function by the compiler. Both reading and writing of function parameters and local variables can be completed by local variable instructions. Let's look at an example:
export function addLocals(a: i32, b: i32): i32 { let c: i32 = a + b; return c; } 
The following is the compilation result (for better observation of the result, the compiler optimization is turned off during the compiling of part of the sample code. The same below):
(func $addLocals (type 1) (param i32 i32) (result i32) (local i32) (local.set 2 (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (local.get 2) ) 
There are only two global variable instructions: global.get and global.set. The global variables of the AS language can be directly implemented using Wasm global variables, and they can be read and write through global variable instructions. Let’s look at an example:
let a: i32; let b: i32; let c: i32; export function addGlobals(): void { c = a + b; } 
The complete compilation result is as shown below:
(module (type (;0;) (func)) (func $addGlobals (type 0) (global.set 2 (i32.add (global.get 0) (global.get 1))) ) (global (;0;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (global (;1;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (global (;2;) (mut i32) (i32.const 0)) (export "addGlobals" (func $addGlobals)) ) 

Memory Instructions

The Wasm virtual machine can carry a piece of virtual memory, with many instructions to operate this memory. Among these instructions, the load instructions can load data from the memory and put it into the operand stack. The store instructions can take data out of the operand stack and store it in memory. In addition, the current number of memory can be obtained through the memory.size instruction, and the memory can be expanded by page through the memory.grow instruction. We will use a simple structure to better observe the usage of memory instructions. Below is the definition of this structure:
class S { a: i8; b: u8; c: i16; d: u16; e: i32; f: u32; g: i64; h: u64; i: f32; j: f64; } 
The following function shows the usage of load instructions for i32 type:
export function loadI32(s: S): void { printI32(s.a as i32); // i32.load8_s printI32(s.b as i32); // i32.load8_u printI32(s.c as i32); // i32.load16_s printI32(s.d as i32); // i32.load16_u printI32(s.e as i32); // i32.load printI32(s.f as i32); // i32.load } 
The following is the compilation result. It can be seen from the offset immediate operand of the load instruction that the AS compiler has not rearranged the structure fields, but has performed proper alignment.
(func $loadI32 (type 0) (param i32) (call $printI32 (i32.load8_s (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load8_u offset=1 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load16_s offset=2 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load16_u offset=4 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load offset=8 (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.load offset=12 (local.get 0))) ) 
The following function shows the usage of load instructions for i64 type:
export function loadI64(s: S): void { printI64(s.a as i64); // i64.load8_s? printI64(s.b as i64); // i64.load8_u? printI64(s.c as i64); // i64.load16_s? printI64(s.d as i64); // i64.load16_u? printI64(s.e as i64); // i64.load32_s? printI64(s.f as i64); // i64.load32_u? printI64(s.g as i64); // i64.load printI64(s.h as i64); // i64.load } 
The compilation result is as shown below. It can be seen that, in some cases, where the i64 load instructions are expected, the AS compiler uses i32 load instructions with the help of extend instructions.
(func $loadI64 (type 0) (param i32) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load8_s (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load8_u offset=1 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load16_s offset=2 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load16_u offset=4 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (i32.load offset=8 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (i32.load offset=12 (local.get 0)))) (call $printI64 (i64.load offset=16 (local.get 0))) (call $printI64 (i64.load offset=24 (local.get 0))) ) 
The following function shows the usage of load instructions for float type:
export function loadF(s: S): void { printF32(s.i); // f32.load printF64(s.j); // f64.load } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func $loadF (type 0) (param i32) (call $printF32 (f32.load offset=32 (local.get 0))) (call $printF64 (f64.load offset=40 (local.get 0))) ) 
The store instructions are simpler than load instructions. The following example shows the usage of store instructions:
export function store(s: S, v: i64): void { s.a = v as i8; // i32.store8 s.b = v as u8; // i32.store8 s.c = v as i16; // i32.store16 s.d = v as u16; // i32.store16 s.e = v as i32; // i32.store s.f = v as u32; // i32.store s.g = v as i64; // i64.store s.h = v as u64; // i64.store s.i = v as f32; // f32.store s.j = v as f64; // f64.store } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func $store (type 1) (param i32 i64) (i32.store8 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store8 offset=1 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store16 offset=2 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store16 offset=4 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store offset=8 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i32.store offset=12 (local.get 0) (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (i64.store offset=16 (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (i64.store offset=24 (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (f32.store offset=32 (local.get 0) (f32.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (f64.store offset=40 (local.get 0) (f64.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) ) 
Like the unreachable instruction introduced earlier, the memory.size and memory.grow instructions can also be generated by built-in functions. The following is a simple example:
export function sizeAndGrow(n: i32): void { printI32(memory.size()); printI32(memory.grow(n)); } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func $sizeAndGrow (type 0) (param i32) (call $printI32 (memory.size)) (call $printI32 (memory.grow (local.get 0))) ) 

Numeric Instructions

As mentioned earlier, numerical instructions can be divided into constant instructions, test instructions, comparison instructions, unary and binary arithmetic instructions, and type conversion instructions.
Specifically, there are four constant instructions in total. Numerical literals in the AS language can be implemented with constant instructions. Here is an example:
export function consts(): void { printI32(1234); // i32.const printI64(5678); // i64.const printF32(3.14); // f32.const printF64(2.71); // f64.const } 
Below is the compilation result:
(func consts (type 1) (call $printI32 (i32.const 1234)) (call $printI64 (i64.const 5678)) (call $printF32 (f32.const 0x1.91eb86p+1 (;=3.14;))) (call $printF64 (f64.const 0x1.5ae147ae147aep+1 (;=2.71;))) ) 
There are only two test instructions: i32.eqz and i64.eqz. The following example shows the usage of i32.eqz instruction:
export function testOps(a: i32): void { if (a == 0) { // i32.eqz printI32(123); } } 
The following is the compilation result:
(func $testOps (type 0) (param i32) (if (i32.eqz (local.get 0)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 123))) ) ) 
The relational operators supported by the AS language can be implemented with comparison instructions. The following example shows the usage of comparison instructions for i32 type:
export function relOps(a: i32, b: i32, c: u32, d: u32): void { if (a == b) { printI32(0); } // i32.eq if (a != b) { printI32(1); } // i32.ne if (a < b) { printI32(2); } // i32.lt_s if (c < d) { printI32(3); } // i32.lt_u if (a > b) { printI32(4); } // i32.gt_s if (c > d) { printI32(5); } // i32.gt_u if (a <= b) { printI32(6); } // i32.le_s if (c <= d) { printI32(7); } // i32.le_u if (a >= b) { printI32(8); } // i32.ge_s if (c >= d) { printI32(9); } // i32.ge_u } 
Here is the compilation result:
(func relOps (type 2) (param i32 i32 i32 i32) (if (i32.eq (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 0)))) (if (i32.ne (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 1)))) (if (i32.lt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 2)))) (if (i32.lt_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 3)))) (if (i32.gt_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 4)))) (if (i32.gt_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 5)))) (if (i32.le_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 6)))) (if (i32.le_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 7)))) (if (i32.ge_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 8)))) (if (i32.ge_u (local.get 2) (local.get 3)) (then (call $printI32 (i32.const 9)))) ) 
Except for the negate operation for floating-point numbers, other unary arithmetic instructions are not directly used by the AS compiler, but can be generated by built-in functions. The following example shows the usage of i32 and f32 unary arithmetic instructions:
export function unOps(a: i32, b: f32): void { printI32(clz(a)); // i32.clz printI32(ctz(a)); // i32.ctz printI32(popcnt(a)); // i32.popcnt printF32(abs(b)); // f32.abs printF32(-b); // f32.neg printF32(sqrt(b)); // f32.sqrt printF32(floor(b)); // f32.floor printF32(trunc(b)); // f32.trunc printF32(nearest(b)); // f32.nearest } 
The compilation result is as shown below:
(func unOps (type 3) (param i32 f32 f32) (call $printI32 (i32.clz (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.ctz (local.get 0))) (call $printI32 (i32.popcnt (local.get 0))) (call $printF32 (f32.abs (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.neg (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.sqrt (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.floor (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.trunc (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.nearest (local.get 1))) ) 
The binary operators supported by AS language can be implemented with binary operation instructions. The following example shows the usage of binary operation instructions for i32 type:
export function binOps(a: i32, b: i32, c: u32, d: u32, e: f32, f: f32): void { printI32(a + b); // i32.add printI32(a - b); // i32.sub printI32(a * b); // i32.mul printI32(a / b); // i32.div_s printI32(c / d); // i32.div_u printI32(a % b); // i32.rem_s printI32(c % d); // i32.rem_u printI32(a & b); // i32.and printI32(a | b); // i32.or printI32(a ^ b); // i32.xor printI32(a << b); // i32.shl printI32(a >> b); // i32.shr_s printI32(a >>> b); // i32.shr_u printI32(rotl(a, b)); // i32.rotl printI32(rotr(a, b)); // i32.rotr } 
Since the AS language does not have a "rotate" operator, we can only generate rotate instructions through built-in functions. The following is the compilation result:
(func binOps (type 3) (param i32 i32 i32 i32 f32 f32) (call $printI32 (i32.add (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.sub (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.mul (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.div_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.div_s (local.get 2) (local.get 3))) (call $printI32 (i32.rem_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.rem_s (local.get 2) (local.get 3))) (call $printI32 (i32.and (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.or (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.xor (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.shl (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.shr_s (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.shr_u (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.rotl (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.rotr (local.get 0) (local.get 1))) ) 
The type conversion operation in the AS language can be immplemented by type conversion instructions. Here is an example:
export function cvtOps(a: i32, b: i64, c: u32, d: u64, e: f32, f: f64): void { printI32(b as i32); // i32.wrap_i64 printI32(e as i32); // i32.trunc_f32_s printI32(e as u32); // i32.trunc_f32_u printI32(f as i32); // i32.trunc_f64_s printI32(f as u32); // i32.trunc_f64_u printI64(a); // i64.extend_i32_s printI64(a as u32); // i64.extend_i32_u printI64(e as i64); // i64.trunc_f32_s printI64(e as u64); // i64.trunc_f32_u printI64(f as i64); // i64.trunc_f64_s printI64(f as u64); // i64.trunc_f64_u printF32(a as f32); // f32.convert_i32_s printF32(c as f32); // f32.convert_i32_u printF32(b as f32); // f32.convert_i64_s printF32(d as f32); // f32.convert_i64_u printF32(f as f32); // f32.demote_f64 printF64(a as f64); // f64.convert_i32_s printF64(c as f64); // f64.convert_i32_u printF64(b as f64); // f64.convert_i64_s printF64(d as f64); // f64.convert_i64_u printF64(e); // f64.promote_f32 printI32(reinterpret(e)); // i32.reinterpret_f32 printI64(reinterpret(f)); // i64.reinterpret_f64 printF32(reinterpret(a)); // f32.reinterpret_i32 printF64(reinterpret(b)); // f64.reinterpret_i64 } 
The compilation result is shown as below:
(func cvtOps (type 4) (param i32 i64 i32 i64 f32 f64) (call $printI32 (i32.wrap_i64 (local.get 1))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f32_s (local.get 4))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f32_u (local.get 4))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f64_s (local.get 5))) (call $printI32 (i32.trunc_f64_u (local.get 5))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call $printI64 (i64.extend_i32_u (local.get 0))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f32_s (local.get 4))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f32_u (local.get 4))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f64_s (local.get 5))) (call $printI64 (i64.trunc_f64_u (local.get 5))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i32_u (local.get 2))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (call $printF32 (f32.convert_i64_u (local.get 3))) (call $printF32 (f32.demote_f64 (local.get 5))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i32_s (local.get 0))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i32_u (local.get 2))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i64_s (local.get 1))) (call $printF64 (f64.convert_i64_u (local.get 3))) (call $printF64 (f64.promote_f32 (local.get 4))) (call $printI32 (i32.reinterpret_f32 (local.get 4))) (call $printI64 (i64.reinterpret_f64 (local.get 5))) (call $printF32 (f32.reinterpret_i32 (local.get 0))) (call $printF64 (f64.reinterpret_i64 (local.get 1))) ) 

Summary

In this article we discussed how the AS compiler implements AS syntax elements through various Wasm instructions. In simple terms: various control structures are implemented through control instructions, local variables and global variables are read and written through variable instructions, memory operations are performed through memory instructions, and operators and type conversions are implemented through numerical instructions. In the following articles, we will discuss in depth how AS implements object-oriented programming and automatic memory management.
submitted by coinexchain to u/coinexchain [link] [comments]

MAME 0.216

MAME 0.216

With the end of November in sight, it’s time to check out MAME 0.216! We’ve addressed the reported issues with last month’s bgfx update, and made a whole lot of little improvements to MAME’s internal user interface. In particular, setting up controls should be easier, and several issues affecting macOS users with non-English number format settings have been fixed. Some of the issues caused bad settings to be written to INI files. If you still don’t see the filter list panel on the system selection menu, try removing the ui.ini file.
This month, we’re able to present two unreleased 1970s prototypes from Italian developer Model Racing: their internal code names are Cane and Orbite. With the assistance of former Model Racing employees, the source code was extracted from the original disks. These games are incomplete, but they provide a unique look into early CPU-based arcade development. Game & Watch titles continue to be emulated, with the addition of Mario The Juggler, and the panorama screen Mickey Mouse and Donkey Kong Circus games in this release.
This release brings GameKing emulation to MAME. The system-on-a-chip used in this low-cost, low-resolution hand-held console from the early 2000s has been identified and emulated. Games for the colour-screen GameKing III are also playable. Acorn BBC Micro emulation has been re-worked to support internal expansion boards, and a number of additional peripherals are now available. ZX Spectrum emulation has been enhanced with better open bus read behaviour and support for two Miles Gordon Technology peripherals.
Of course, these are just the highlights. You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

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Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A B) = 61, which is 0011 1101 ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, which is 0011 0001 ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) = -61, which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement due to a signed binary number. << Binary Left Shift ... to the left operand of the operation. The values in the top row correspond to the right operand of the operation. The value located at the intersection of the row and column (for a particular pair of input values) is the result. Table 3-1: AND truth table AND 0 1 000 101 Table 3-2: OR truth table OR 0 1 001 111 Write Great Code www.nostarch.com. Binary Arithmetic and Bit Operations47 In plain ... Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101 ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001 ~ Binary One's Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) = ~(60), i.e,. -0111101 << Binary Left Shift Operator ... Binary Operation. Just as we get a number when two numbers are either added or subtracted or multiplied or are divided. The binary operations associate any two elements of a set. The resultant of the two are in the same set.Binary operations on a set are calculations that combine two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the same set. Operando opções binárias no metatrader 5,Real binary options robot. Real binary options robot Posted at 20:34h in Fibonacci for binary options by Como ganar efectivo con opciones binarias 0 Comments. 0 Likes. tweezer; pares de moedas em opções binárias; blacklisted scam binary options brokers ; pull back là gì; ikili opsiyon r10; different between binary option v iq option; binary ... [SLP] Vectorize transposable binary operand bundles. Needs Review Public. Actions. Authored by mssimpso on Apr 26 2018, 8:44 AM. Edit Revision; Update Diff; Download Raw Diff; Edit Related Revisions... Edit Parent Revisions; Edit Child Revisions; Edit Related Objects... Edit Commits; Subscribe. Mute Notifications; Award Token; Flag For Later; Tags. None . Subscribers. llvm-commits: mcrosier ... This loop won't exit if you enter options 1-4, remove response==4 from the condition if that's your goal. – PsychoMantis Feb 2 '19 at 0:49 show 2 more comments BINARY OPTIONS; CRYPTO CURRENCIES; Operando Opciones Binarias en OTC Los Fines De Semanas. Binary Forex Iq Option Opciones Binarias Trading. Updated on 3 Mar a las 8:36 pm. El mercado de los fines de semanas, el mercado extra bursátil, paralelo al mercado formal o Over The Market(OTC). ¿Es recomendable operar este mercado en Opciones Binarias? Desde mi punto de vista, Si. Pues el OTC es un ... Dismiss Join GitHub today. GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. “Use of a signed integer operand with a binary bitwise operator” - when using unsigned short. Ask Question Asked 2 years, 5 ... and in the right pane, select Clang-Tidy. Under Options, in the field labeled "Comma-separated list of enabled and disabled checks, write a comma and then -hicpp-signed-bitwise, and press OK. – mic 6 hours ago. add a comment 9. I think the integer promotion ...

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